ABOCADO: Term used to describe a sweet wine.
ACIDIC: A wine is acid when its acidity exceeds the normal level in each region. To the non-connoiseur, it means rejection or the equivalent of rough or bitter. However, some acids are vital for wine conservation, especially in the case of white wines, and also to give them a fresh taste. Some acids are beneficial, however of hers contain vinegar (ascetic acid).
ACRID, SOUR: Rich in tannins and acids, rough and sour for the palate and nose.
ASTRINGENT: It is a wine that leaves a sensation of coarseness, that gives a lip-puckering sensation caused by excess tannins. In some cases it is a desirable characteristic, depending on the quality of the tannins: the best come from varieties of choice grapes which are the base for the elaboration of "great wines"
ATTACK: The first impression to the taste, which should be favorable. Without this characteristic the wine is considered "bland" or "weak".
BALANCED: Term used to describe a wine which shows harmony among its various components, such as alcohol, acid, tannin, perfumes and tastes.
BITTER: A peculiar taste of wines that generally comes from tannin and the lack of maturity.
BODY: The sensation one feels when tasting a wine rich in extract.
CHAPTALIZATION: The adding of sugar to the must to achieve the right alcohol level. It is used occasionally in Europe and in the United States, when the must is not sufficiently sweet. In general this occurs in climates with clearly defined seasons, when the year has had an insufficient number of sunny days to achieve mature musts, or when there has been excess rainfall.
COARSE: Without any fine qualities and whose taste and texture add nothing. The acid or the tannin is the dominant element.
DEEP: Great quality. Successive sensations with various tastes. It must be drunk carefully because of its multiple aftertastes following the first impression.
DRY AND SEMI·DRY: Sparkling Wine that has received a dosis of expediting liquor in accordance with the type being produced. In the "DRY" there are about 15 grs/ lt. of sugar. In the "SEMIDRY" 25 to 30 grs of sugar.
EARTHY: A wine that reflects in its flavors the best of the soil.
EASY: the taste which stays in the mouth after a long tine of having drinking it. It is called a good end or finale.
ELEGANT (Distinguished): Puts the taster to test when he tries to describe its virtues and balance.. Its first, second and final impresion are of great quality. Its virtues make it comparable to other forms of beauty.
EXTRACT: The total dry extracts in wine are the sum of all the substances that under certain physical conditions do not evaporate. These are the constituent parts of the wine that give it its taste, aside from alcohol, water, acids, etc. It's said that the more of them that there are, so much better will the wine be. Nonetheless, an excess of extract makes the wine harsh and tough. This is a wine that has not been rapidly separated from the peel.
FAT: That wine which with its taste and consistency fills the mouth.
FINESSE: The distinction and quality of a good wine with personality.
FLOWERS (Select): Is said of a wine of delicate aroma which recalls the fragrance of flowers (roses, violets & others not identifiable, etc.)
FRESH (Refreshing): An agreeable and inviting acidity for the palate. White wines specially should have this quality.
FRUITS (Fruity): It differs from the taste of flowers. It is said of a wine whose taste reminds us of the taste of fruits. One should try to individualize the fruit (cherries, plums, casis, etc.)
FULL-BODIED: Whose substance can be chewed. In Peru two generations ago, when tasting Pisco, the well versed used to say " I can chew the grape"
FULL: Is often used as a synonym of a wine with body, that is to say, well balanced: viscosity, alcohol and extract resulting in a well-balanced combinations when tasted.
HONEY: Wine made from mature grapes whose fragrance and taste are very difficult to identify.
IMPETUOUS: Heady, in which alcohol predominates.
LIGHT: Is said of a wine with little body, but pleasant to drink. With little colour, little alcohol, buT whose constituents are well balanced.
OAK (taste of): The result of keepiig wine in new oak barrels. Advantage is taken of this practice in order to give the impression of a great wine. For connoisseurs this quality is a serious defect and they clasify the wine as mediocre.
OXIDIZED: This terminology is applied to wines that have lost some of their qualities through oxidation, specially the oxygen in iron. This term corresponds to chemical changes in it's make-up.
PERSISTENCE: Duration of the sensations that the wine produces in the nose and on the palate.
PLUMP: Diminutive of fat, has its charms.
RICH: This terminology describes a wine with much alcohol and color
WILD: It is said of a Sparkling Wine which has not received expediting liquor. Expediting liquor is a syrup which is added to the Sparkling Wine before the final corking. The object of adding expediting liquor is to give a definitive taste to the product, correcting any lack of balance. With refence to Wild Sparkling Wine, it has been so perfected that it is unecessary to use this. Expediting liquor must no be confused with "tiraje" liquor, whose purpose is to produce bubbles which turn into foam, and which was discovered in 1715 by the monk Dom Perignom. The discovery was the result of economic necessity, which made possible the sale of very acid wines of the northern regions, which were transformed into the famous Sparkling Wine. In homage to Dom Perignom, Moet & Chandon denominated their finest Sparkling Winee "Dom Perignom".
ROUND: The same as fat.
SOUPPLE: Souple is a French word that means ductability. This is said of a wine that is agreeable to drink when it has a good balance between the acids, the alcohol, and the tannins, without any of these elements predominating or standing out. This is a trait that is pursued in modern wines, and especially so after the generalization of malolactic fermentation, thanks to the investigations of professors Jean Ribereau and Emile Peynaud of the University of Burdens.
STRUCTURED (with): Very harmonious and well balanced. Without this, the wine would be bland, opaque and perishable.
STYLE (with): Well defined
TENACITY: The tastes that remain after having drunk it.
VIGOROUS: This is said of a well constituted wine, rich in alcohol and in extract.